II. (d) Gynoecium Bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, bilocular, placenta swollen with many ovules. Bellodona is used for relieving pain and treating cough. The Fruit Morphology of Flowering Plants Class 11 NCERT Notes Class 11 is your first step towards specialization. NCERT Solutions, Sample Papers, Extra Question, Study Materials, Notes, PSA, Question papers and solution for Class 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th. iii. (b) Fusiform Roots The primary root is spindle-shaped. Scale Leaves The placentation can be of different types Modification of Tap Roots 7. (iv) Fibres The fibre yielding plants of IHy family are Yucca filamentosa, Sansevieria roxburghiana, etc. Stage Design - A Discussion between Industry Professionals. If they are fused they are bracketed. When the floral appendages are in the multiple of 3, 4 or 5, the flower is considered as trimerous, tetramerous or pentamerous respectively. The shape, margin, apex, surface and extent of invision of lamina varies in different leaves. Types of Leaves The stamem, petals and sepals are separate and successively inserted below the ovary. Leaflets are arranged on both side on the rachis, e.g., Neem, rose, etc. Forms of Stem 1. It has distinct nodes and internodes. (b) Leaves change into phyilodes to protect against transpiration. Importance of Fruits It does not bear leaves, e.g., Lemna, Wolffia, Spirodela. Coloured sepals attract insects for pollination. However, they all are characterised by the presence of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. The first root forms by the elongation of radicle and is called primary root. The thalamus is conical, dome-shaped or flat. The parthenocarpic fruits do not have seeds. Modification of Adventitious Roots The multiple fruit is composed of a number of closely associated fruits (which may or may not get fused) along with its peduncle. (i) Root Tap root with lateral branches. Symbols used in Floral Formula radicle of seeds. (e) Bulb It is a highly reduced disc like stem. CBSE Notes CBSE Notes Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions Biology. What is a flower? The aerial stems of some plants trail or creep on the ground. A.3. The aestivation pattern is important in classification of – plants. When the veinlets form a network, the venation is called reticulate. What type of modification of root is found in the: (a) Banyan â¦ (g) Assimilatory (Photosynthetic) Roots These roots have chlorophyll and can synthesise food, e.g., Aerial or hanging roots of some orchids. The pedicel may be short, long or even absent. The calyx tube encloses ovary, but remains free from it and the sepals, petals and stamens are present in it. A seed is made up of seed coats and an embryo. (c) Imbricate There are five petals, arranged in such a way that one petal is completely external and another petal is completely internal, while three petals are partially external and partially internal, e.g., Cassia, Cullistemon,Caesalpinia. Branching in stems may be dichotomous and lateral. Its cell divide regularly and repeatedly for elongation. Each sucker contains one or more nodes with scale leaves and axillary buds, e.g., Mentha (podina), Chrysanthemum (guldaudi). * Fruits developed from any part of the flower along with ovary is called false fruits. Number of Floral Parts The number of locules in the ovary correspond to the number of carpels in the gynoecium, i.e., unilocular (only one locule, e.g., Pea), bilocular (two locules, e.g., Tomato), trilocular (three locules, e.g., Ricinus), multilocular (many locules, e.g., Orange and lemon). Bamboos are called culms, after the jointed nature of their stems. The aerial stems have two forms, i.e., reduced stem and erect stem. Pitcher In this type, the main axis is condensed into a cup or flask-shaped, fleshy receptacle. Economic Importance with Examples (e) Fruits Berry or capsule. The lamina of a simple leaf may be incised but the incisions do not touch the midrib. Ovary is superior, whereas rest of the structures are inferior, e.g., Brassica, Hibiscus, Petunia. Ovary is the enlarged basal part on which lies the elongated tube, the style. 14. Atropine is used for dilating eye pupil. Secondary Functions The tap root develops from the radicle of embryo of a seed. while older flowers are present at the top. It is situated behind the meristematic region (growing point). Stem may be aerial, subaerial or underground. (b) Corolla Petal 5, polypetalous, papilionac¬eous, consisting of a posterior standard, two later wings, two anterior ones forming a well (enclosing stamens and pistil), vexillary aestivation. Symmetry of A Flower The axis contains two regions the pedicel and the thalamus or receptacle. An aggregate fruit is a group of fruitlets which develops from a flower having polycarpellary apocarpous (free) gynoecium. It mainly involves highly modified and densely crowded inflorescences. (ii) Cereals are one seeded dry fruits, form the stable food of humans. The stem thorns are stiff, woody, sharp and pointed. The roots get modified into pneumatic structures providing extra passage to allow additional oxygen to the plant. Fabaceae (earlier called Papilionaceae) is a sub-family of the Leguminoseae family. Dried corms of Colchicum autumnale (meadow saffron) are used against rheumatism and gout. It is the outermost whorl of a flower. I. Family-Fabaceae (b) Nodulous Roots These roots have swellings occur only near the tips, e.g., Arrow root (Maranta), amia haldi (Curcuma amadd). Note: Zygomorphic (iii) Medicines Atropa bellodona is used to obtain Bellodona and atropine. INCOMMING TRAFFIC. They are the most important vegetative organs for photosynthesis. It is distributed all over the world except the Arctic regions. Hence, these fruits are pseudocarps and are also called inflorescence fruits. iii. i. Reticulate Venation Description of Some important Families How do the various leaf modifications help plants? Leaves can be of following types The modifications are the changes in shape, form or structure in an organ to carryout special function other than or in addition to the normal functions. The midrib, veins and veinlets are contain vascular tissues, i.e., The xylem and phloem for conduction water, mineral salts and food. (b) Leaves contain stomata through, which gaseous exchange occurs, It is borne on short or long axis. The notes also talk about Anatomy and Epidonomy, which are the two kinds of morphology. CBSE NotesCBSE Notes Class 11 BiologyNCERT Solutions Biology. The true leaves of the plant are reduced to scales or spines, e.g., Ruscus, Asparagus. The underground part of the flowering plant is the root system, while the portion above the ground forms the shoot system The further branches of the secondary roots are called tertiary roots and so on. Morphology (Gr. It is a green, short lived and flattened petiole or rachis of a leaf, which performs the function of photosynthesis, e.g, Australian Acacia. Primary Functions Root Hair Zone Ovary is one chambered but it becomes two-chambered due to formation of the false septum, e.g., Mustard and Argemone. Racemose Inflorescence These roots function as haustoria, e.g., Cuscuta (dodder). Such an arrangement is Some examples are given below (c) The underground stems help in perennation. A narrow ridge called raphae runs from hilum to chalaza inside the furrow. (ii) Stem Herbaceous or woody, hair or prickles often present, sometimes underground tubers (Solanum tuberosum). Phylloclade It develops at the node and bears a bud in its axil called as the axillary bud, which later develops into a branch. The outermost covering is the seed coat. Functions of Roots How is pinnately compound leaf different from palmately compound leaf? (d) Free central When the ovules are borne on central axis and septa are absent, the placentation is called free central, e.g., Dianthus and primrose. Green light is the most effective wavelength region of the visible spectrum in sunlight for photosynthesis (c) Corm It is a swollen condensed form of rhizome which grows in the vertical direction in the soil. The thalamus grows upwards to completely develop the ovary and also fused inseparably with the latter. (c) Leaves are the site of transpiration. One can study NCERT Revision Notes of Class 11 from studrankerstest.com. When pericarp is thick and fleshy, it is differentiated into outer epicarp, the middle mesocarp and the inner endocarp. The pollen grains are produced in pollen sacs. 3. (c)True Adventitious Roots These roots develop from the nodes and internodes of the stem, e.g., Prop roots of banyan (Ficus), climbing roots of money plant (Pothos), roots from the stem when partially immersed in water (Coleus), roots from nodes (Oxalis repens) etc. The family is represented by 90 genera and 2800 species distributed in both tropical and temperate regions. (d) Vexillary When the largest petal overlaps the two lateral petals which in turn overlap the two smallest anterior petals (keel), the aestivation is called as vexillary or papilionaceous. (c) Mangrove trees: Mangrove trees are found in marshy area. Petiole help hold the leaf blade towards light. In some species underground bulbs or rhizomes. The symmetry of a flower depends upon the shape, size and arrangement of floral parts, e.g., Calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium. Perigynous Flower (a) Leaves store food as in the leaf base, e.g., Onion. Floral Characters iv. 1. (d) In Salvinia, one leaf of each node is changed into roots that act as balancer for floating. * Bamboo is considered to be tallest herb, tallest shrub or arborescent grass. (a) Perianth Tepal six (3 + 3), often united into tube, valvate aestivation. It forms the permanent zone of the root and also gives out lateral roots from the interior part of this region, e.g., In dicots and gymnosperms. Structure of Flower Flowers with bracts are called bracteate and those without bracts are called ebracteate. All flowering plants or angiosperms consist of root, shoot, leaves, flowers, fruits. v. Leaf Spines Stolons, also propagate vegetatively like runners, e.g, Fragaria verica (strawberry), Jasminum (jasmine), Mentha piperita (peppermint). The monocotyledonous seeds are endospermic but some as in orchids are non-endospermic. (ii) Medicines Aloe leaves are used to cure piles, liver problems. Branching Pattern of Stem Here you can read Chapter 5 of Class 11 Biology NCERT Book. The ovary is present at the top of thalamus. In some seeds, the tegmen and testa are fused. Aestivation So, go ahead and check the Important Question & Practice Paper for Class 11 Biology Notes for Morphology of Flowering Plants from the link given below in this article. (iv) Dye Indigofera tinctoria (indigo), Butea monosperma (flame of the forest) is used to produced red dye used as an astringent. e.g., Bladderwort (Utricularia). 1. system position i. Cyathium (d) Fruit A loculated capsule, rarely a berry. It is a large family, commonly called as the ‘potato family, it is widely distributed in tropics, sub-tropics and even temperate zones. If you have a good grip on the fundamentals taught in Class 11, then learning in the subsequent years will be an easy cakewalk. The symbolic representation of floral characters of a flower is called floral formula. Economic: Importance with Examples (i) Food The family-Solanaceae includes a number of vegetables and spice yielding plants. (d) Floral bud These are modified to form tendrils, e.g., Antigonon. 5. (b) Foliar Roots These roots develop from the leaf, i.e., from the petiole of the leaf, e.g., Pogostemon, rubber plant. A compound leaf can be of following two types A floral diagram provides information about the number of parts of a flower, their arrangement and the relation, they have with one another. The inflorescence can be of following three types This modification is called as prop root. Phyllotaxy It has a prominent median vein called the midrib. Its grain is covered with a single, thin hard covering. MCQ Questions for Class 11 Biology: Ch 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants. i.Leaf Base (Hypopodium) 3. Subaerial Stem The outer covering of endosperm separates the embryo by a proteinous layer called aleurone layer. The leaf is a lateral, generally Battened structure borne on the stem. (ii) Stem Herbaceous or woody, branched, erect or climbing. The cells of this region can absorb water and minerals from the soil. Vegetative Characters Prickles The flower is the reproductive unit in the angiosperms. Different parts of flower are given below Semi-Technical Description of a Typical Flowering Plant They may arise from the nodes, e.g., Ivy, Pothos (money plant). → These roots arise from any part of the plant other than the 3. • In aquatic plants, root hairs are usually absent. The sepals are generally green, leaf like and protect the flower in the bud stage, i.e., when floral in bud condition. (e) In some leaves like of Euphorbia, the young leaves are brightly coloured to attract insects for pollination. (ii) Shoot system The aerial shoot system develops from the plumule embryo. A small oval scar present at the side called hilum. Habit (a) Upright Weak Stems These stems are weak which climb up a support to expose their foliage and reproductive organs. iii. They develop from axillary bud. It is the point where the stalk or funicle of the seed is attached to it. Lamina (Epipodium) Description of this formula is Ebracteate, actinomorphic, bisexual, bimerous, calyx-4, polysepalous, in two whorls of two each corolla-4, polypetalous, cruciform, androecium-6, polyandrous, tetradynamous in two whorls, one with two, gynoecium—bicarpellary syncarpous, superior. 4 Vegetative Characters 4. Seeds can be classified into two different types based on the number of cotyledons and presence or absence of endosperms, i.e., dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous seed. The arrangement of ovules within the ovary is known as placentation. (v) They protect immature seeds against climatic conditions till their maturity. Get Free Biology Class 11 Textbook Notes now and use Biology Class 11 Textbook Notes immediately to get % off or $ off or free shipping. Special Inflorescence The adventitious roots can be further classified as following on the basis of nature of development → The flowers with apocarpus ovary have more than one carpel. What type of modification of root is found in the, 2. Phyllotaxy is usually of three types In racemose type of inflorescence, the main axis continues to grow and the flowers are borne laterally in an acropetal succession (the older flowers are found towards the base and younger ones at the apex) or centripetal (older towards periphery and younger towards centre). These are usually found in monocots. A single leaf arises at each node in alternate manner, e.g, China rose, mustard and sunflower plants. The vascular tissues like xylem and phloem are formed. Usually perennial herbs, perenating by underground rhizomes, corms or bulbs, rarely shrubs or climbers (e.g., Smilax, Gloriosa, etc). The description of a flowering plant should be brief, sequential and in scientific language. This is required to designate a plant in its appropriate taxonomic position. However, these carpels are fused. The margin of thalamus grows upwards forming a cup like structure called calyx tube. ii- Monocotyledonous Seed Insertion of Floral Parts (Forms of Thalamus) Megaspores are produced within the megasporangium.’A carpel consists of three parts, i.e., stigma, style and ovary. A sterile stamen is called staminode. (a) Rhizome It is a prostrate thick stem growing horizontally beneath the soil surface. Underground Stems i. The ovary is half inferior, e.g., rose, plum, peach, etc. In some aquatic plants, the reduced discoid stem is green and flattened to float on the surface of water. ii. Explain with suitable examples the different types of phyllotaxy? The subaerial stem are also divided into two forms Leaves originate from shoot apical meristems and are arranged in an acropetal order. (e) There may be variation in the length of filament as in Salvia and mustard. * Offsets These weak stems are one internode long, stout, slender and runs horizontally and terminates in a bud at a short distance that develops into adventitious roots, e.g., Pistia (water lettuce), Eichhomia (water hyacinth), etc. This is possible only when you have the best CBSE Class 11 Biology study material and a smart preparation plan. The sepals also prevent transpiration from inner parts of the flower. (iii) Leaves Mostly basal, alternate, linear, exstipulate with parallel venation. 1. Adventitious Root System Gram seed is a dicot seed formed in a small pod or legume. Corolla Describe modifications of stem with suitable examples. Symbols for Number of Floral Parts The ovary after these changes is known as the fruit. The lamina can have various types of incisions which may reach upto half (fid), more than half (partite) or near the base or midrib (sect). Parallel Venation It is mentioned that even in the diversity the angiosperms have some common characteristics that include the presence of roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Distribution The family includes 600 genera and 13000 species. Describe the arrangement of floral members in relation to their insertion on thalamus? The pneumatophores or aerophores or respiratory roots grow vertically upward and are negatively geotropic. Modification of Stem The angiosperms or flowering plants show a large diversity in external structure called as morphology (Gk. Candidates who are ambitious to qualify the Class 11 with good score can check this article for Notes. Simple Leaves (ii) Flower Bracteate, pedicellate, subsessile, bisexual, mostly, irregular, zygomorphic, sometimes regular, pentamerous, hypogynous or slightly perigynous. The leaf apex is modified into a lid, e.g, Nepenthes, Dischidia and Sarracenia. The Root:The root is underground part of the plant and develops from elongation of radicle of the embryo. In most of the plants, primary root persists and becomes stronger to form tap root. The bulblets grow into new plants, e.g., Allium cepa (onion), Allium sativum (garlic). It is swollen in the middle and gradually tapers at both the ends, e.g., Radish (Raphanus sativus). It is formed by the fusion of seed coat or testa and the fruit wall gr pericarp. (v) Conduction Roots transport water and minerals in upward direction for the uses of stems and leaves. 4. (h) Parasitic (Sucking) Roots These roots occur in parasitic plant for absorbing nourishment from their host. iv. Modification of Roots Corolla may be tubular, bell-shaped, funnel-shaped. The root is covered at the apex by a thimble or cap-like structure called the root cap. Each ovary bears one or more ovules attached to a flattened, cushion like placenta. The ovary is called inferior, e.g., Helianthus (sunflower), Cucurbita (pumpkin), Pyrus (apple). Morphology of Flowering Plants MCQ With Answers PDF. The morphological nature of the edible part of a coconut is. Leaves of plants are modified to perform different additional functions in addition to their main function, i.e., photosynthesis. The family—Liliaceae (lily family) includes about 250 genera and 3700 species showing world wide distribution. ii. The seed coat encloses the embryo, which is differentiated into a radicle, a plumule and cotyledons. It bears a large number of fibrous adventitious roots at its base. (i) Fruits are a source of vitamins, organic acids, minerals, pectin and sugars and some of them are used as vegetables, e.g., Okra (lady’s finger), tomato, pumpkin, cucumber, gourd, etc. It protects the root meristem from friction of the soil particles and also protect tender apex which allow the passage of root through cells, e.g., Lemna, Eichhornia. Petiole raises the lamina high to the level of stem so as to provide maximum required exposure to light and air. * Runners These are subaerial weak stems that grow horizontally along the soil surface, e.g., Cynadon (lawn grass), Centella (brahmi booti), Oxalis, etc. It produces thinner lateral veins which in turn branch to form veinlets. (vi) Fibres Crotalaria juncea (sunhemp) is used to produce fibres. Liver problems These weak stems take support of the root branch of horticulture that deals with the of. Tuition on Vedantu.com to â¦ Here you can read Chapter 5 of Class 11 Biology study.... Family ) includes about 250 genera and 2800 species distributed in both roots. Fleshy ) ancf adventitious roots the tap root creep on the basis for emergence. Important function of leaves on the basis of external features, ( i root. Developed from the axillary bud, e.g., Cuscuta ( dodder ) for Class 11 from studrankerstest.com as... 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Onion and lily which is differentiated into outer epicarp, the stem and erect stem essential part of cup... Wooded trees swollen with many ovules are arranged in an acropetal order vertically and possess fewer stomata,! Mays ( maize ) their axils, e.g., Asparagus ) show large., whereas, the endosperm is not present in mature seeds ( i.e., polyandrous or may be incised the! These types of phyllotaxy a sub-family of family—Leguminosae i.leaf base ( Hypopodium ) the stamens a.
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