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Gregory Ablavsky et al., “British North America,” Daniel Johnson, ed., in The American Yawp ... Mustakeem, Sowande M. Slavery at Sea: Terror, Sex, and Sickness in the Middle Passage. Smallpox was yet another common disease that, like the rest, was exacerbated by the cruel and inhuman experiences, which killed many Africans and caused many more to become physically pathetic and emotionally terrified. The right wrist and ankle of one person was connected to the left wrist and ankle of the other. Northbrook, Ill: Metro books, Inc. Equiano, Olaudah. If a severe flogging did not inspire them to eat, they would burn their lips with hot coals, even threatening to force the burning coals down their throats. “The women, in particular, clang to each other in agonies fiercely to be conceived, shrieking through excess of terror, at the savage manner in which their brutal purchasers rushed upon and seized them” (Falconbridge, 1973: 35). The Black Ordeal of Slavery and Slave Trading in the French West Indies 1625-1715. The Middle Passage did not begin with the transatlantic voyage, but with the capture and sale of Africans, and ended with their forced ‘adjustment’ to life in the Americas. Captains, officers and crew could be sexual predators and the powerless female slaves were their victims (Falconbridge, 1973: 23, 24). As the ship rocked in stormy waters, the abrasive irons and chains would rub and tear the slaves’ flesh. Black classic press. The life of Olaudah Equiano. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016. The American Yawp, Joseph Locke and Ben Wright, eds., last modified The disheartened slaves were also forced by the cracking of the whip to sing. Other slaves refused to eat, preferring death to their emotional and physical trauma (Pierson, 1977: 150). Fifty Days on board a slave vessel. The slave factories contained slaves who had survived a brutal capture and march from the interior of Africa (Drake, 1972: 43, 48, 49). Interpretations of original documents. Each lashing delivered nine separate, violent stings to the suffering slave. Smallpox: Inoculation, Vaccination, Eradication. From the early days of the American colonies, forced labor and slavery grew to become a central part of colonial economic and labor systems. Some of the excrement and urine would seep through the spaces between the plank boards, splattering on those who were unfortunate enough to be directly under the relieving slave (Munford, 1991: 308). The Middle Passage Although the origins are unknown and the meaning has changed over time, The Middle Passage is a term that commonly refers to the transporting of African slaves from the West African coast, across the Atlantic sea to the Americas, aboard slave ships known as slavers. If they did not consent, they were severely beaten (Equiano, 1999: 74). He goes on to say that, “It frequently happens that those who kidnap others are themselves, in their turns, seized and sold. UTOPiAfest Down In The Oaks – November 2-4 2018, UTOPiAfest Down in the Oaks – Lineup with STS9, Euphoria Music Festival 2017 Review | Manic Focus, Euphoria Music & Camping Festival Review 2016, All images and content © Chris Hooper 2002-2016 - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED - hooper@aoxoa.co. The Middle Passage “Les tam-tam de l’Afrique,” by IAM Lyrics (English translation) “Fils de Cham’ (Ham’s son)” Saturday, Aug 6, 2011. Those who suffered from dysentery or other diseases were stored in barracoons or huts located on the shore (Thomas, 1997: 432, 434). Back to Historical Sources; Back to top. Equiano states that, “I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a salutation in my nostrils as I had never experienced in my life: So that, with the loathsomeness of stench, and with my crying together, I became so sick and low that I was not able to eat, nor had I the least desire to taste anything” (1999: 32). The holds had very little ventilation usually with only five to six airports on each side of the ship. Other common inflictions suffered by slaves were dysentery or “bloody flux”, scurvy and the most feared, smallpox. It designated the bottom line of a trading triangle, between the “outward passage” from Europe to Africa and the “homeward passage” from the Americas back to Europe. Home » Cultural / History » The Middle Passage | Atlantic Slave Trade. Share this: Twitter; Facebook; Like this: Like Loading... Post navigation. Terrified Africans died and became feeble from a variety of diseases that were aggravated by the ruthless methods of their captors and the bestial conditions they suffered on board the ship. A slavers’ Logbook, or 20 years’ residence in Africa. 1991. Next Article Aboard a Slave Captain’s Ship. Bosman, William. Primary Source: a record made by people who saw or took part in an event (originates from the past) Secondary Source: a record of an event written by someone not there at the time **Key question: Is this a primary/secondary source? Source 1: Committee Minutes. The auctioneer sat on a high chair at one end of the room, and the slaves stood on a stool in front of him. Then comes a pricking felt all over the body followed by “a pain in the throat and chest, with pain and heaviness of the head; inquietude, distress of mind, nausea, and anxiety. Once in the United States, enslaved Africans were sold at auctions across the country, from the rice plantations of the South Carolina coast to the small businesses and farms of the rural Northeast. The bulk of the material used to explore this topic comes from the holdings of the M.D. For the women, already having been preyed upon during the voyage, the fear must have run much deeper. Learning objectives; To investigate what was the middle passage?. Students will learn new vocabulary words, determine the central idea of a primary source document, and then choose one of two activities that will help them to analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic. Groups of ten would be given one bucket of food, which they ate out of with their hands. Middle Passage Sources. Sometimes they would encircle whole groupings with a rope. Revelations of a slave smuggler. This design was used by British abolitionists in their campaign to end slavery in Great Britain during the 1790s. He survived the many horrors of the Middle Passage to write an autobiography and become a leader in the movement to end slavery “Generally when the grown people in the neighbourhood were gone far in the fields to labour, the children assembled together in … The diet of the slaves during the voyage could not sustain good health nor help prevent disease and death. Slave narratives are rare, but one such slave account by Olaudah Equiano describes seeing and boarding a slave ship for the first time. Introduction to Primary and Secondary Sources for Elementary and Middle School Students Objectives: This is a skill-based lesson that is intended to introduce a wide range of students to the world of primary sources and how to work and think critically like a historian. Slaves were fed twice a day—at eight in the morning and at four in the afternoon. Vitamin C and Scurvy. Equiano was subject to a different kind of terrible sale called a scramble. Pliny's dates are pinned to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 and a statement by his nephew that he died in his 56th year, which would put his birth in AD 23 or 24.. Pliny was the son of an equestrian Gaius Plinius Celer and his wife Marcella. Slave ships usually took between six and eleven weeks to complete the voyage. THE MIDDLE PASSAGE THROUGH PRIMARY SOURCES ... Middle Passage. National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London. Furthermore, Equiano comments that he knew of child rapes: “I have known our mates commit these acts most shamefully, to the disgrace not of Christians only, but of men. The Oxford English Dictionary The food was terrible and the worst was horse beans. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Original materials. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Primary and secondary source work, Week six identifying primary and secondary sources, Comparing primary and secondary sources lesson plan, Primary secondary sources, Teaching primary and secondary sources, Primary sources, Primary secondary and tertiary sources in … One dame was not satisfied until she forced a wench to screech by squeezing her breast cruelly” (Drake, 1972: 45). It had nine separate appendages of log line, each with several knots (Falconbridge, 1973: 40). | Historians estimate that approximately 472,000 Africans were kidnapped and brought to the North American mainland between 1619 and 1860. White Cannibals, Black Martyrs: Journal of Negro history LX11 pp.147-59, April. The sheer scale of the trade can obscure the experiences of individuals. The modified design of the holds exacerbated and promoted unhealthy conditions for the slaves, resulting in high mortality, along with the physical weakening and psychological traumatizing of the rest. If the slaves danced reluctantly, or the least bit sloppy, they were whipped for inspiration (Falconbridge, 1973: 23). The hold could become full of shit, blood and mucus (Falconbridge, 1973: 25). Many of these slaves were prisoners of war from native conflicts/slave hunting (Conneau, 1976: 104). It was handed to them in a small utensil that resembled a sauce-boat (Falconbridge, 1973: 22). A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea. ( Log Out /  Grief typically filled their distressing eyes with tears during their coerced crooning (Dow, 1968: 195). This resource is designed for UK teachers. These storage selves made it impossible for slaves to stand while stored, much less sit upright. They were boiled into a pulp served with a pepper laced “slabber-sauce”. A slave inflected with scurvy would have become weak with joint pain. Most of the time, slaves that needed to reach the tubs were prevented from doing so. Secondary sources can include history books, school textbooks, encyclopedias, History magazines, websites, and documentaries. Although the origins are unknown and the meaning has changed over time, The Middle Passage is a term that commonly refers to the transporting of African slaves from the West African coast, across the Atlantic sea to the Americas, aboard slave ships known as slavers. Secondary Sources. The greedy, brutish, madhouse of the scramble was just another stress for the poor slaves. Exterminated by the Bloody Flux. Required fields are marked *, Native American Headdress – Music Festival Goers. To combat and prevent scurvy, sailors regularly forced slaves to rinse their mouths out with vinegar (Thomas, 1997: 419). Thomas, Hugh. Upon reaching the coast, the survivors were weak, demoralized, traumatized and often sick. Falconbridge reports, “About eight o’clock in the morning the Negroes are generally brought upon deck. ( Log Out /  An analysis of primary sources or events . Circle the correct answer. The Gullah People of the Sea Islands For Teachers 8th. Photographs of Civil War soldiers in their camp Primary Secondary 3. Letters written by Abraham … Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016. Prentice Hall, Inc. Dow, George Francis. 1973. They either died there or were sold cheaply to Jews, surgeons and other speculators. Jan 23, 2019 - primary-source-middle-passage-19659-article_only In another account by James Arnold, a surgeon aboard Captain Joseph Williams ship the Ruby, describes his captain’s victimization of young female slaves. Equiano recalls, “There was much dread and trembling among us, and nothing but bitter cries to be heard all the night from these apprehensions…The white people got some old slaves from the land to pacify us. The women were not put in irons, unless they were considered troublesome. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Source 9: Elizabeth Heyrick. Source 8: A slave revolt. As to be expected, most of their songs were filled with the sorrow and despair of being torn from their country and kin. ( Log Out /  It is one of history’s most horrific chapters, showing the human capacity for both cruelty and insensitivity and strength and survival. Dr. Philip Howard, from the University of Houston, described these platforms as strips of un-planed boards with no covering to protect slaves from the splinters and knots, usually having some amount of space between each board. The food was then shoved down their throats through a funnel (Thomas, 1997: 420). Known as the "middle passage," this … Hard labor made tobacco, rice, and sugar plantations profitable. Indeed, with only two cups of water per day coupled with the sweating, puking, and diarrhea, the slaves suffered tremendously from dehydration. The Oxford English Dictionary defines dysentery as, “A disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane and glands of the large intestine, accompanied with gripping pains, and mucous and bloody evacuations” (JMR). These purchasers tried to revive the sick to a condition where they could be used or resold at a profit. Source: David Eltis and David Richardson, Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (New Haven, 2010). Gregory Ablavsky et al., “British North America,” Daniel Johnson, ed., in Anderson Library located at the University of Houston’s main campus. These openings were only six inches by four inches, hardly enough to allow proper ventilation (Falconbridge, 1973: 24). Yes = primary source. After being secured in this fashion, they were sent down into the hold, where they were stored in partitioned off apartments. To summarize, the transportation of African slaves from the West coast of Africa, across the Atlantic, to the Americas during the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries has come to be known as The Middle Passage. As a result, sickness and death were prevalent on every slaver. New York : Barnes & Noble Inc. Conneau, Theophilus Captain. define the Middle Passage and relate its role in the slave trade ; discuss the conditions of slaves on Middle Passage ; Length: 1 hour . Anti-slavery sources. Slaves that were not stored next to these buckets had trouble reaching them. Dysentery, one of the common diseases mentioned above, was uncontrollable diarrhea mixed with blood. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Examining Primary Sources. Known as the "middle passage," this sea voyage could range from one to six months, depending on the weather. “The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered it a scene of horror almost inconceivable” (Equiano, 1999: 33). Scurvy was another common disease suffered by the slaves during The Middle Passage. A biography of Theodore Roosevelt written in 2001 Primary Secondary 2. They were then branded with the identifying marks of their owners, using hot irons (Drake, 1972: 43). Horse beans were the cheapest food you could get in Europe at the time. Although the origins are unknown and the meaning has changed over time, The Middle Passage is a term that commonly refers to the transporting of African slaves from the West African coast, across the Atlantic sea to the Americas, aboard slave ships known as slavers. Document #4- Olaudah Equiano Boards the Slave Ship The following is a passage from Equiano’s autobiography The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. According to Falconbridge, “Most of the slaves have such an aversion to the horse beans, that unless they are narrowly watched, when fed upon deck, they will throw them overboard or in each others faces when they quarrel” (1973: 22). Neither the younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names. It has been estimated that a third of the slave deaths during The Middle Passage were attributed directly and indirectly to dehydration (Thomas, 1997: 423). Razi, Abu Bahr Muhammad. Are these primary or secondary sources? Source 3: Poster. “Flux is similarly defined as an abnormally copious flowing of blood and excrement from the bowels or other organs; a morbid or excessive discharge” (JMR). There is a source question at the start encouraging pupils to interpret what the source implies about slavery. Buying and enslaving the people who supplied this labor ultimately became a lucrative and tragic part of the commerce in the maritime web that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas. The Middle Passage was the part of the Atlantic slave trade where African slaves were brought to the Americas on slave ships.Millions of African people were shipped to the Americas over the Middle Passage. Their shackles and the limited space made it cumbersome and painful to crawl over others to reach the tubs. It involved the unwilling separation of peoples from their home and family, forcing them into a mandatory deportation, reducing their status to that of mere human cargo, exposing them to a cramped disease filled environment, limiting them of basic life giving substance, subjecting them to wrenching sexual abuse and much more. ** Ask yourself.... Did/could the author/creator witness/make the artifact? Upon the site of land, the weakened, traumatized slaves were no longer restricted to their limited rations of food and water, if there was no shortage (Falconbridge, 1973: 23). The main tasks are to answer source questions and there is level criteria provided. Secondary source documents are all of the following EXCEPT: answer choices . The slaves that were carried ashore and sold in a dying state seldom survived for very long (Falconbridge, 1973: 33). In this harrowing description of the Middle Passage, Olaudah Equiano described the terror of the transatlantic slave trade. Source 6: Diagram of a slave ship. The nightmare for the slaves got worse in periods of stormy weather. The Middle Passage ended with the slave’s arriving in the Americas. Captain Rich’d Drake, an African slave trader for fifty years, described how the blacks were examined head to foot, having their joints and muscles squeezed, their arms and legs twisted, their breast and groins pinched without mercy. Slaves were treated so badly on the slave ships that about 15% of them died during the Middle Passage. Their lack of clothing caused a lowering of physical resistance. Upon being brought aboard the slave ship, the male slaves were shackled together in pairs with handcuffs and leg irons. Q. Before going to shore captains, mindful that the slaves feared being devoured by the Europeans, arranged for local Creole slaves to come aboard the vessels to pacify the terrified captives. the “middle passage” is an old maritime phrase, dating to the heyday of the Atlantic slave trade. The whip that drove the unwilling and weak to dance was called a cat-o-nine-tails. You are encouraged to share the post by clicking one of the share buttons. Lesson Planet. Without fresh air or ventilation, the hold became intolerably hot (Falconbridge, 1973: 24). Cambridge, Maryland: Cornell Maritime Press, Inc. Drake, Rich’D. The slave trade was a vast system involving many types of people. There is evidence that Equiano may have been born in South Carolina and not Africa. The horrified slaves that were not yet restrained with shackles, realizing they would never see their country and kin again chose to jump overboard to certain death by either drowning or shark attack (Dow, 1968: 70, 74). Determined to get the best, arguments and fights would break out between the competitive purchasers (Falconbridge, 1973: 34). Primary Source: Olaudah Equiano Describes the Middle Passage, 1789. Frequently, weak slave children would be found lying in a tub, smothered in sickness, unable to lift themselves out after having fallen in (Hill, 1993: 38). 1976. As a photographer, he specializes in music, lifestyle, concert, and portraits. “The men could only jump up and rattle their chains” (Dow, 1968: 195). I hope it was interesting for you. “These filled me with astonishment, that was soon converted into terror, which I am yet at a loss to describe…I was immediately handed and tossed up to see if I was sound by some of the crew, and I was persuaded that I had got into a world of bad spirits, and that they were going to kill me…when I looked round the ship too, and saw a large furnace or copper boiling and multitude of black people, of every description, chained together, everyone of their countenances expressing dejection and sorrow, I no longer doubted of my fate; and, quite overpowered with horror and anguish, I fell motionless on the deck and fainted” (Equiano, 1999: 31). 1967. Hill, Pascoe Grenfell. Passage. Drake reported what an auction entailed, “The Dutch maids walked around inspecting the naked Africans as if it was a common thing. The Atlantic slave trade was the largest fo… The cold-blooded state of affairs and the brutal process of The Middle Passage began on the coast of West Africa where enslaved Africans were held prisoners by their African captors. The enslaved, naked Africans were then herded onto the slave ships under the inspiration of the whip. Captive Passage: The Transatlantic Slave trade and the Making of the Americas. The Edwin Mellen Press ltd. Palmer, Colin A. alternatives . Middle Passage, the forced voyage of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the New World. 1997. Beacon Press, 2005. “The eruption of smallpox is preceded by a continued fever, pain in the back, itching in the nose, and terrors in sleep” (Razi, 2000). It is here that they endured a pitiless process of feeding and exercise, but first they were secured like beast with chains. Source 5: Britannia. The women may not have had to suffer in irons but they were subject to other evil-minded and unsparing treatments. Map reproduced by permission of Yale University Press. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications Inc. Falconbridge, Alexander. Falconbridge likened it to a slaughterhouse (1973: 24, 25). While they were in, the creatures attacked them by throwing rocks against the walls of the cabin. Newport News, Virginia: Smithsonian Institution Press. 1. William Bosman, another seaman involved in the African slave trade, remarks that he saw no sharks in the coastal waters of Africa’s gold coast except at the main outlets where slaves were dispatched to the Americas. This article will briefly outline the major phases of The Middle Passage and describe some of the treatments and conditions the enslaved Africans experienced. Before being loaded onto the ships, the slaves–males and females–had their heads shaved by their African captors. The voyage from Africa to the New World of the Americas was called the Middle Passage. Your email address will not be published. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Primary Vs Secondary Sources. Although the black traders who dealt in African slaves were careful not to revel the circumstances under which slaves were collected, Alexander Falconbridge, a surgeon who was involved in the slave trade, had reason to believe that most of the slaves were victims of a heartless action known as kidnapping (1973: 13). Falconbridge reported that, “The confined air, rendered noxious by effluvia exhaled from their bodies, and by being repeatedly breathed, soon produces fevers and fluxes, which generally carries off great numbers of them” (1973: 24). Usually, at the first sign of scabs a slave would be thrown overboard to be devoured by the sharks that seemed to follow slave ships “as if they smelt the sickness” (Drake, 1972: 49). 1968. “And some of them, by constantly lying in the blood and mucus, that had flowed from those afflicted with the flux…have their flesh much sooner rubbed off than those who have only to contend with the mere friction of the ship” (Falconbridge, 1973: 28). Therefore, slaves were not getting the balanced nutrition they needed and they became unhealthy, weak and even more susceptible to diseases. Next come the lesions which ulcerate soon after formation” (Razi, 2000). An analysis of primary sources or events. Black Africans, whose business it was to organize slave-hunting expeditions, facilitated the use of slave factories, sometimes referred to as slave castles or barracoons. 2000. Some slaves lost the desire to eat as Equiano explained that the loathsome, intolerable stench from the hold made him become “so sick and low” that he was not able to eat, nor did he have the least desire to taste anything (1999: 32). Next, their gums would hemorrhage while the tissue became weak and spongy. A negroe in the West-Indies informed me that after having been employed in kidnapping others, he had experienced this reverse. Slaves that were weak, but not deathly sick, were fed and cleaned before being marched to the merchants’ yard to await the grim treatment of the auction (Thomas, 1997: 432). Sources created later by someone who did not participate in the event. Source 4: A Negro's Complaint. I have even known them to gratify their brutal passion with females not ten years old; and these abominations some of them practiced to such a scandalous excess” (Equiano, 1999: 74). If the weather proves favorable, they are permitted to remain in that situation till four or five in the afternoon, when they are disengaged from the chain, and sent down” (Falconbridge, 1973: 21). As you listen to this first-person narrative and review the supporting primary sources, think about how learning the story of this man who served as the cargo superintendent (or supercargo) on a slave ship might build a better understanding of the American slave trade in the 18th century Th… Inflicted slaves had little choice but to lay in their own filth, and those stored on the bottom of the hold were subject to the mess flowing between the spaces in the upper planks (Munford, 1991: 308). “Many of the Negroes have letters cut on the breast or shoulder…whereby on the vessel’s arrival to the Americas; owners could recognize their property (Hill, 1993: 37). Test your knowledge out. This is part 1 of a lesson learning about the middle passage. The rumor was that white cannibals had a fondness for eating African flesh (Pierson, 1977: 147, 148). THE MIDDLE PASSAGE THROUGH PRIMARY SOURCES ... Equiano was captured by African slave raiders in Nigeria when he was 11 years old. It seemed at times as if their arms would by pulled out of joint or their jaws cracked by some of the Dutch boors. 1972. The leg irons, handcuffs and the restricted space made it painful and difficult for slaves to turn or move while stored in the hold (Equiano, 1999: 33). Conditions inside the holds were inhuman. It is in these slave castles where some prisoners of the trade died from injuries inflicted during their capture or disease brought on from the wet, unhealthy environment (Palmer, 2002: 54). Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. In this lesson, students will use primary sources from the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African American History and Culture to better understand the history of slavery in the United States. JMR. Of these, nearly 18 percent died during the transatlantic voyage from Africa to the New World. “It was his general practice on the receipt of a women slave—especially a young one—to send for her to come to his cabin so that he might lie with her. He goes on to state that the sharks will follow the slave ships across the Atlantic, waiting to feed on any slaves that enter the water (Bosman, 1967: 281, 282). These are two sheets of sources used in a Y8 slavery lesson. Chills were common from the temperature change going from deck to steamy hold. In rough seas or rainy weather, it was necessary to close the airports to prevent the hold from being flooded and the victims could be locked below deck for days (Munford, 1991: 305). He goes on to say that he was “flogged severely for not eating” (1999: 32). After an examination of this material, it is apparent that the cruel treatment of the slaves coupled with the inhuman conditions aboard the slavers resulted in high mortality rates while causing the survivors to emerge physically weak as well as mentally terrified. Be packed below decks ; to investigate what was the Middle Passage and describe some of transatlantic!, native American Headdress – music Festival Goers and other speculators in South Carolina and not.! Hold, where they were housed in these merciless factories until the slave ship the... Range from one to six airports on each side of the Middle Passage lesson plans and worksheets from thousands teacher-reviewed! The afternoon females–had their heads shaved by their purchasers to make sure they were Like..., much less sit upright to steamy hold encyclopedias, history magazines, websites, and sugar plantations profitable system... 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They ate out of joint or their jaws cracked by some of slave! Dance was called a cat-o-nine-tails to eat, preferring death to their emotional physical. Buyers were allowed to purchase all they could claim and tear the slaves danced,. United Nations human Development Report ( 2010 ) Friday, Aug 5,.. Elder Pliny mention the names 24, 25 ) Drake reported what auction... And weak to dance was called the Middle Passage | Atlantic slave trade Trading in the Americas 1993 30. At the start encouraging pupils to interpret what the source implies about slavery Facebook ; Like this: Like...... About 15 % of them were common from the holdings of the material used to explore topic. Preyed upon during the Middle Passage | Atlantic slave middle passage secondary sources was the Middle Passage and some... Rich ’ D imagine the terrible apprehension and emotional distress brought on by brutal. Selves made it impossible for slaves to submit to a different kind terrible... 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